Despite new MLB rules, catching is still hazardous

The concept of a team is to bring individuals with specific skills together to perform as a successful unit. In baseball, the skills of a catcher are among the most varied and demanding.

Catchers also face significant injuries as a result of constant throwing, maintaining a crouched position behind home plate and physical contact with the baseball moving at high velocity, the bat being swung overhead and collisions with other players.

In addition to these injuries, the catcher is often seen as the person responsible for coordinating the activity of other players on the field.

In 2014, Major League Baseball passed a new rule requiring catchers to give runners a clear path to home plate and prohibit runners from veering from that path to collide with catchers.

This has resulted in a reduction of the number of collision injuries and specifically concussions that result from these collisions.

Interestingly, the greatest number of concussions continues to be contact between the catcher and foul-tipped baseballs and contact with the bat.

Those concussions also have required longer recovery time than collision-related concussions, according to a study published in the American Journal of Sports Medicine.

That study also found that the greatest number of days spent on the disabled list by catchers was related to injuries to the lower extremities and arms.

Arm injuries are the result of throwing hundreds of sub-maximal effort throws to the pitcher on a daily basis and maximum-effort throws to second base.

“Catchers can be susceptible to knee injuries, specifically patellofemoral pain due to their constant squatting position with their knees flexed,” reports Dr. Katherine Coyner, Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Connecticut.

“This can cause softening of the cartilage. It is important to stretch and work on flexibility and strength specifically of the quadriceps and hips to avoid patellofemoral pain.“ Better protective equipment and training techniques for catchers will hopefully reduce injuries.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Regular exercise can extend cognitive life expectancy

The life expectancy of Americans has grown dramatically over the past 50 years thanks to major advances in medical science. Unfortunately, advancing age has brought with it an increase in age-related conditions including visual loss, arthritis, vascular disease and kidney disease.

Neurodegenerative conditions including Alzheimer’s disease and other related dementias have presented some of the greatest challenges to enjoying these advancing years.

Approximately 5.7 million Americans suffer from Alzheimer’s disease. It is a disease that robs its victims of their most intimate memories and the ability to learn new information. These numbers will grow as the population ages and this has lead to the application of a new measure termed “cognitive life expectancy.“

Cognitive life expectancy is best defined as the length of time adults can live with good versus declining brain health. A recent study presented at a national meeting estimates that Americans have an average of 12 years of good cognitive health beyond age 65.

A series of recent articles published in the journal Neurology and its related publications have looked at proven ways to increase cognitive life expectancy through exercise.

In general, fitness activities were considered to be aerobic, resistance and a combination of aerobic and resistance. Mind-body exercises including yoga and tai chi were considered as a separate mode.

In one comprehensive review of the literature on this topic, a combination of one hour per day, three times per week of any of these modalities resulted in improved cognitive testing.

A study of Swedish women over a period of 44 years found that women with a high level of cardiovascular fitness during midlife had an 88 percent decrease in dementia compared to a medium fitness group.

Participation in a regular exercise program can be a big factor in extending the cognitive lifespan. Although this can be helpful at any age, following an exercise regimen beginning in early life has the most benefit.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Overuse injuries in youth sports have become common

Youth sports have evolved over recent decades. Among the most obvious changes are the higher levels of competition. It is not uncommon for an athlete to compete for several different teams during the same season. This uncontrolled exposure to injury often results in overuse orthopedic injuries in children.

Overuse injuries are the result of chronic repetitive trauma to a joint. As opposed to an acute injury, the symptoms are subtle and gradually worsen, making diagnosis of these injuries more challenging.

Typically, these injuries affect the bones, muscles and tendons in a joint. They include sprains, strains and stress fractures. Treatment includes rest, ice and anti-inflammatory medications.

A recent study presented at the American Orthopedic Society for Sports Medicine looked at 149 Japanese pitchers ages 7-11. None of the athletes entered in the study had elbow pain at the beginning of the season. Those who threw more than 50 pitches a day and 200 pitches per week while playing in more than 70 games per year were more likely to develop elbow pain.

Some American little leagues do not allow an athlete to throw more than 50 pitches per game. Another solution to overuse is to play multiple sports that use different skills and biomechanics.

“Pain is the principal sign that it’s time to take a break,” reports Dr. Ashok Kotaratharra, a local pediatrician at UCFS. “Trying to hang in despite discomfort may lead to permanent injury.”

Parents should carefully monitor workout schedules and be sure that young athletes receive proper coaching to avoid overuse injuries that can shorten a potentially stellar sports career.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Be careful when exercising in the hot weather this summer

Athletes accustomed to performing their regular outdoor training regimens often continue despite drastic changes in climate. During summer months, this persistence can result in severe injury.

The human body strives to maintain an ideal body temperature of 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. This requires the interaction of temperature receptors in the skin that relay information to the brain.

The hypothalamus is the area of the brain that interprets this information and, in the case of elevated temperatures, signals muscles and sweat glands to begin a cooling process. Any malfunction in the process, or subjecting the body to overwhelming temperatures, can result in heat-related illness.

Heat stroke is the most severe of the heat-related illnesses. It typically occurs when the body temperature rises in excess of 103 degrees.

The body responds by increasing the heart rate to pump more blood to the skin, where it can become cooled. It also pumps more blood to muscles to keep up with metabolic demand.

In an effort to lower the core temperature, blood is diverted from the brain and other essential organs. Symptoms include a racing heart rate, lightheadedness, muscle cramps, headache and confusion. If ignored, these symptoms can lead to a loss of consciousness.

“Here are three tips for exercising in hot weather,” reports Dr. Douglas Casa, Professor of Kinesiology at the University of Connecticut. “1) Take it easy — you can not push as hard as you can in cool conditions, so back off a little; 2) If you ever start to feel something is amiss, listen to your body and lower your intensity and seek cooler conditions; 3) have cold fluids and cooling towels at the ready for you or your children when exercising in the heat.“

Caution when exercising in extreme heat can avoid serious injury.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Heart failure amongst athletes always leads to questions

The recent tragic death of Hall of Fame basketball player and coach Anne Donovan has attracted the attention of many Connecticut Sun fans. What is most bewildering to many is how a highly-trained 56-year-old athlete passes away from heart failure.

The human heart consists of four muscular chambers: the right and left atria and the right and left ventricles. These chambers work in a coordinated fashion to pump blood from the right chambers to the lungs where it becomes enriched with oxygen and from the left chambers where blood is pumped to the brain and other organs.

Maintaining this coordination requires rhythmic stimulation from a network of nerves within the heart and blood vessels that nourish the heart muscle. Any malfunction of these components will lead to heart failure and subsequently deprive essential organs of needed oxygen.

The most common cause of heart failure in athletes is cardiomyopathy. This results from abnormalities that directly affect the heart muscle.

Similar to other muscles, the heart increases in size and efficiency as a response to the increasing demand of large muscles in athletes. This physiologic change in the heart muscle can hide other cardiac problems that affect the rhythm and blood supply to the heart muscle.

One way of detecting these changes in anticipation of a catastrophe is to perform advanced diagnostic studies including echocardiography that images the heart at rest and under stress.

“Structural changes of the heart in athletes such as enlarged chamber size and increased wall thickness are adaptive and physiological. However, some of these changes may overlap with cardiomyopathy,” reports Dr. Kai Chen, co-director of Sports Cardiology at the Calhoun Cardiac Center at UConn. “Early symptoms include an unexpected drop in performance, shortness of breath during exercise, chest tightness, and lightheadedness.“

Careful attention to cardiac symptoms during workouts can be lifesaving for athletes.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Beware of ticks at outdoor events

Athletes who compete in outdoor events in Connecticut must be especially mindful of ticks that carry a variety of bacterial infections. Although unlike viral infections, these conditions can be treated with antibiotics. The key is to identify and treat them quickly to avoid permanent injury.

Ticks are insects that survive by biting and digesting the blood of domestic and wild animals. They also bite humans and in turn transmit diseases from the animal to the human. As the population of potentially diseased animals has increased, so has the frequency of these illnesses.

Lyme disease is the most familiar and most common tick-borne bacterial infection. There are approximately 300,000 cases each year, most of these in the northeast.

Borrelia is the infectious agent in Lyme disease. Early symptoms are flu-like with joint pain, fever and a typical rash. If untreated the infection can spread to the nervous system. If infection is suspected, treatment with antibiotics within 72 hours of the tick bite can avoid Lyme disease entirely.

“Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis are other tick-borne diseases now being recognized more often,” reports Dr. Michael Rajkumar, a local infectious disease specialist. “These infections can cause severe illness and are sometimes fatal in certain populations such as infants, patients with immunodeficiencies and patients with certain blood disorders.“

Symptoms of Babesiosis are similar to Lyme disease but a persistent high fever and chills are an early hallmark. Treatment includes antibiotics combined with anti-malarial drugs.

Anaplasmosis, previously known as Ehrlichiosis, presents with symptoms one to two weeks after infection with a flu-like illness that can also lead to headaches and confusion if untreated.

Careful self-examination after competing or working out in tick-infested areas can be lifesaving.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Summer fun can be ruined by insect bites

The arrival of summer brings longer days, warmer temperatures and increased opportunity for outdoor activities. It also brings the opportunity for infections transmitted via insect bites. Among these infections are the arboviruses.

Arbovirus is a general term used to describe a variety of viral infections transmitted by infected arthropods. Among these are mosquitoes and ticks. The symptoms vary between the extremes of mild joint pain to life threatening brain infections.

Although Lyme disease presents with similar symptoms to arboviruses, it is the result of a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics.

The frequency of encountering these viruses varies on geography. The most common arboviruses in the northeast include West Nile Virus, Eastern Equine Encephalitis and Powassan Virus Disease.

Initial symptoms of each of these infections include fever, rash, headache and joint pain. Fortunately, in most cases, these symptoms are self-limited. Treatment is primarily symptomatic with hydration, rest and anti-inflammatory medications.

More serious symptoms occur when the infection attacks the central nervous system resulting in encephalitis. These symptoms include persistent headache, confusion, seizures and loss of consciousness. Unfortunately, there is no specific treatment for viral encephalitis.

Golfers, hikers, trail runners and mountain bikers are most susceptible to infection based on their level of exposure. The best way to avoid infection is by wearing long-sleeved, light-colored clothing with pant legs tucked into socks. Frequently applying insect repellant with DEET to exposed surfaces is recommended.

As in most viral infections, elderly and very young patients are at highest risk.

“Insect repellant should never be applied to newborns and young children should not use products with more than 30 percent DEET,” reports Dr. Ashok Kottarathara, a local pediatrician in practice at United Community and Family Services. “Wristbands, smartphone apps and sonic repellents do not work against mosquitoes. Removal of all stagnant or standing water is another extremely effective way of preventing breeding of mosquitoes”.

Avoiding exposure to insect bites can be crucial to a more pleasant and safe summer.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Carpal tunnel injury is rare for pitchers

Last week, Boston Red Sox starting pitcher David Price was forced to miss at least one start due to symptoms of numbness in his dominant left hand. He was eventually diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), a condition not commonly associated with major league pitchers. Subsequently, a controversy has ensued based on speculation that the condition is actually related to Price’s avid participation in computer games.

The carpal tunnel is a structure in the wrist formed by several bones at the base known as the carpal bones with a ligamentous roof called the flexor retinaculum. Within the tunnel a large nerve, known as the median nerve, brings sensation and movement to a discrete portion of the hand.

Narrowing of the carpal tunnel may be the result of direct trauma that produces acute swelling, arthritic changes in the carpal bones and enlargement of the flexor retinaculum due to repetitive use.

The presenting symptoms of CTS are usually neurological in nature as a result of compression of the median nerve. Typical complaints include changes in sensation in the thumb, index and middle digits of the affected hand. These include a tingling sensation that comes on during the night or when first awakening. Early symptoms oddly improve with movement such as shaking the hand. Later symptoms include weakness with fine movements involving the thumb and index finger.

The diagnosis is made by clinical examination and electrodiagnostic studies that can specifically isolate the area of injury to the median nerve and quantify the severity of the damage.

“Carpal tunnel syndrome is a very uncommon injury in baseball pitchers,” reports Dr. Joel Ferreira, an orthopedic hand surgeon at the UConn Musculoskeletal Institute. “It’s typically caused by constant repetitive use of the hands from lifting/typing or vibratory tool use as well as sewing and crocheting. In my practice, I rarely see patients develop CTS from video games.“

Conservative management includes the use of nocturnal wrist splints and steroid injections. Surgical decompression is reserved for more severe damage to the median nerve. Although the cause of Price’s CTS may be debated, the treatment options are clear.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Athletic genes are just one factor for success

Connor Svab, a local baseball standout at St. Bernard’s, is in many ways a baseball paradox. In addition to playing infield and pitching, he also plays varsity basketball. At 5-10, 140 pounds, he does not seem to possess the physical prowess valued by many professional teams.

Nevertheless, Svab has gotten the attention of scouts and will be heading to Castleton University to further his baseball career. Interestingly, both his father and great grandfather played professional baseball.

Scientists in the field of evolution have constantly raised the question of nature versus nurture. The arguments in favor of both approaches to development are most prominent in the field of sports. Are some athletes destined to reach great heights from birth or is greatness the product of hard work and opportunity?

Genes are the foundation of heredity. They contain the recipe for the production of proteins that make up the human body. Each person has two of each gene, one contributed by each parent. Those contributions produce our physical characteristics.

Brain growth also plays a prominent role in how a human develops. Specifically, the brain consists of a variety of networks that pass information to different areas within the brain. A brain cell is made up of a cell body and an elongated axon. The axon gradually becomes encased in an insulating material called myelin. Signals are transmitted along the myelin. Brain development is a dynamic process that spans through childhood and adolescence.

The maturation process includes making the brain operate more efficiently. It does this through a process of neuroplasticity. The brain eliminates some networks while making other regions of the brain operate faster and more precise. This can involve motor as well as sensory functions and result in rapid decision-making and reaction to a particular situation. This obviously can be a huge advantage in sports. It is believed that environment plays a big role in this phase of development. 

Lengthy discussions and analysis that center on baseball may have played a big role in the baseball development of Connor Svab.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Concussions now a big part of retirement decisions

Wrestling fans are excited about the recent return of Daniel Bryan to the ring. Bryan, a star performer, was forced to retire two years ago due to multiple concussions. His return after multiple, comprehensive neurological evaluations has raised many questions regarding the criteria for medical retirement from sports after concussion.

Concussion is best defined as a group of neurologic symptoms that arise after a force is applied to the brain. Recovery from these symptoms can vary but the general accepted time frame is 10 days. This is often longer in children. The persistence of these symptoms is associated with post-concussion syndrome.

Repeated blows to the brain can result in permanent impairment with persistent headaches, cognitive difficulties, sleep abnormalities, emotional disturbances and other neurologic symptoms.

The often-asked question is: "How many blows can the brain tolerate before resulting in permanent damage?"

The human brain is a highly individualized organ. It consists of a mass of nerve cells that each has a threshold for injury. The challenge for physicians is to determine that threshold based on the symptoms suffered and the length of the recovery period.

There are some basic rules that indicate the need to retire from participation in high-velocity collision or combat sports. These include:

1. Persistent abnormalities on cognitive and psychological testing that can be linked to concussion
2. Structural abnormalities found in the brain that may be related to trauma or predispose the athlete to permanent injury
3. A demonstrated decreased threshold for injury over multiple, successive concussions

Another recent change in the presentation of sports-related concussion has been the desire to voluntarily withdraw from high-risk sports. Athletes, even at the highest levels of sport, are choosing that the risks outweigh the benefits.

In the case of Bryan or any other athlete, it is worth the time investment to seek out a highly qualified physician who works with athletes.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

NFLPA draws up a playbook for player safety

A playbook is a collection of strategies that allows a team to deceive their opponent at crucial times during the course of a contest. Football players are aware of the importance of their playbook and the secrecy that surrounds its contents. The National Football League Players Association (NFLPA) has taken the playbook concept and applied it to improving the health of all its members and their families.

The recently released NFLPA Health Playbook is a compendium of easy-to-understand health information that addresses common illnesses facing both active and former players. It was designed and written by members of the NFLPA Mackey-White Health and Safety Committee. It is divided into four broad sections:

1. Performance
2. Medical diseases and conditions
3. Orthopedics and musculoskeletal conditions
4. Neurology and neurotrauma

Specific topics were chosen based on information obtained through research conducted as part of the Football Player Health Study at Harvard University.

The performance section discusses the evaluation and treatment of sleep disorders, as well as a variety of mental health disorders. Among the medical conditions, diabetes mellitus and the potential complications from it are explained along with a variety of treatments. This section also addresses hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and peripheral neuropathy. The chapters covering neurologic conditions and concussions are highly informative.

“The NFLPA is committed to ensuring that our player members receive the best medical care in the world,” reports Sean Sansiveri, NFLPA vice president of business and legal affairs. “This playbook serves as our latest effort to equip players and their families with the knowledge and resources necessary to achieve overall wellness for their betterment as people and patients.”

Although the NFLPA Health Playbook provides a concise, thorough review of health topics designed to support active and former football players, it is actually an excellent guide for all athletes and the general public.

Like other playbooks, the health playbook will be continually updated as new medical issues and treatments develop. The full publication is available online as a courtesy of the NFLPA, and can be found by searching “NFLPA Health Playbook.”

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Cavaliers’ Love shines light on panic attacks

In a recent article published online in “The Players’ Tribune,” Kevin Love of the Cleveland Cavaliers, discussed his ongoing battle with panic attacks. Although the condition is not rare, anytime a professional athlete admits to a mental health condition it becomes noteworthy.

A panic attack is an episode of intense fear when no apparent danger is present. The person feels a sense of impending doom and loss of control. This triggers a reaction with symptoms that can include: a rapid, pounding heart rate, sweating, trembling, difficulty breathing, nausea, chest pain and numbness. There is often a feeling of unreality or detachment.

This cascade of symptoms is also known as the “fight or flight response.” This is a primitive response designed to protect a person when threatened by an attacker. This complex reaction begins in the brain where the amygdala and hypothalamus respond involuntarily to a situation. This occurs without conscious input of judgment provided by the frontal lobes.

These structures in the brain then send signals to the adrenal glands to secrete adrenaline that in turn causes the physiologic response described.

Successful athletes are able to trigger this response to their advantage and as a result can improve performance. In the case of Love, his false perception of danger has caused episodes where he temporarily cannot function at a high level.

“Current treatments include medications and behavioral interventions designed to identify and reduce the symptoms. One of the best treatments, in the short term, is an anti-anxiety medication,” reports Dr. Caleb Peck, a Norwich neuropsychologist and Director of Clarus Health Alliance. “The best treatment outcome comes from pairing medication with individual psychotherapy.”

Love’s admission of a mental health condition, coupled with his level of fame, will hopefully lead to other athletes seeking care.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Studies reveal risks for spinal injuries

Among the most terrifying injuries in sports is when an athlete becomes paralyzed after a collision or fall. If the impact is focused on the cervical spine, the result is a temporary or permanent paralysis of all extremities. This pattern of paralysis is referred to as quadriplegia. Identifying athletes who may be susceptible to this type of injury can be lifesaving.

The cervical spine consists of seven bony vertebrae that surround and protect the spinal cord.

Cartilaginous discs that cushion and protect the bones from friction and impact separate the vertebrae. The individual vertebral segments are connected by a series of ligaments giving this portion of the spine flexibility to allow a certain degree of bending and twisting.

The cervical spinal cord is located in a central canal. The spinal cord at this level contains a network of motor and sensory nerve fibers that carry signals to and from the brain. The higher levels also coordinate essential functions such as respiration, temperature and cardiac function.

The most common injury is known as neurapraxia of the cervical spinal cord. This is best described as transient numbness, tingling and/or weakness of the extremities after cervical cord injury. It typically occurs with hyperextension, flexion or axial loading of the spine. Episodes last anywhere from 15 minutes to 36 hours. Axial loading injuries are common in football when tackling with the head down.

Subsequent radiologic studies often reveal congenital narrowing of the cervical canal causing these athletes to be vulnerable to this type of injury.

“Initial treatment for congenital cervical stenosis is often observation,” reports Dr. Isaac Moss, Associate Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery and Neurosurgery at the University of Connecticut. “However, if patients become symptomatic, surgical treatment is an option. This is often in the form of a procedure called laminoplasty, which involves increasing the space available for the spinal cord within the spinal canal.”

A thorough neurologic evaluation for episodes of weakness and numbness in athletes can avoid catastrophe.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

New concussion blood test shows promise

A concussion is brain trauma brought on by a biomechanical force. It consists of a group of neurological symptoms that impair the patient for a variable amount of time. The symptoms are often not immediately obvious to the patient or an observer, making the diagnosis of a concussion challenging.

The recent announcement of an FDA-approved blood test that can help resolve this diagnostic dilemma has been met with great interest both by the public and the scientific community.

A biomarker is a measurable substance in an organism that may indicate the presence of a disease, infection or environmental exposure. The Banyan Brain Trauma Indicator is based on identifying proteins that are released from the brain into the bloodstream after impact.

The specific proteins detected by this test (UCH-L1 and GFAP) can be identified up to 12 hours after injury. The blood sample takes approximately three hours to process. The principal studies were conducted by the Department of Defense in soldiers who experienced brain trauma.

Brain trauma has become a significant health problem in the United States. There were approximately 2.8 million visits to the emergency room in 2013. Currently, there are approximately 3.8 million sports-related concussions each year in the United States. This discrepancy is based on the fact that brain trauma is a range of injury that includes brain trauma from severe motor vehicle accidents and penetrating trauma from blasts and gunshots. Concussion is the mildest type of brain trauma on this range and often does not require brain imaging such as CT scanning.

Currently this new blood test has very limited application in sports, where decisions need to be made quickly and away from a laboratory. It is also not useful in identifying sub-concussive blows to the brain that result in cumulative injury. It is not approved for use in children at this time.

This blood test will be helpful in an emergency room setting after serious brain injury.

Despite its limitations, the Banyan biomarker is a significant advance in the diagnosis of brain trauma and will hopefully lead to better testing.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

The danger of sexual predators in sports

The recent conviction and sentencing of Larry Nassar should be a reminder to all that vigilance is necessary to protect children from predators.

More importantly, Nassar violated an established trust between a patient and physician. This and other recent episodes of abuse have also shattered the faith placed in organizations and universities entrusted to protect young athletes.

Sexual predators often methodically build relationships with victims over a period of years. The underlying premise in many abusive situations is the exertion of power over a victim. Early recognition of typical behaviors can avoid a potential crisis.

Grooming is one technique used by predators. It is a process by which an offender draws a victim into a sexual relationship and maintains that relationship in secrecy. Typical targets are young, unsuspecting athletes who have low self-esteem and little parental oversight. Athletes with intellectual impairments can be particularly vulnerable.

Establishing a bond with the athlete and parents allows a sexual predator a lot of opportunity.

Private coaching or physical treatments specific for that athlete can be warning signs.

Isolation is also a crucial element in an abusive relationship. Participation on travel teams and competitions that require overnight accommodations can present occasions for abuse.

Excessive physical contact that appears inappropriate can also be a sign of abuse. If physical contact is necessary in the course of a medical examination, a parent or other adult should be present. The practitioner should welcome inquiries regarding the nature of the examination. Unfortunately, many young athletes actually report incidents of abuse but are not taken seriously.

There are many dedicated coaches, medical personnel and parents involved in youth sports. Vigilance on the part of all adults involved in youth sports is crucial to stopping what has become a disheartening trend.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Diet, exercise prove helpful in treating MS

Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects at least 400,000 Americans and two million people worldwide. It is a chronic inflammatory disorder that targets the brain and spinal cord. Specifically, the immune system attacks the insulation around nerves as if attacking a foreign object.

MS often presents with symptoms of visual loss in one eye, weakness, numbness, double vision or difficulty walking. The course of the illness is typically marked by periods of deterioration lasting days or weeks followed by remission.

Approximately 15 percent of patients have a progressive unremitting course of illness.

Although there is no cure for MS, there has been tremendous progress in the development and use of disease-modifying medications that increase the length of the symptom-free periods. The goal of treatment is to redirect the immune system.

In addition to medications, several other modalities in the form of diet and exercise have been proven to be helpful in treating MS.

MS is most commonly found in temperate climates where exposure to sunlight is reduced. Vitamin D supplements have been shown to be helpful in treatment.

Diets rich in whole grains, fruits and vegetables with reduced intake of processed sugars and red meat is optimal.

Interestingly, regular physical exercise has also demonstrated a beneficial effect in maintaining patients’ neurologic function. Moderate aerobic exercise combined with light resistance exercise has proven to be an effective regimen. Overheating the body from vigorous exercise or use of a hot tub can be detrimental.

“A structured exercise regimen that allows for gradually increased intensity under the guidance of a physical therapist and a physician can provide a benefit for patients with MS and other neurologic diseases,” reports Dr. Vernon Williams, Director of Sports Neurology at the Kerman-Jobe Clinic.

MS patients should consider multiple treatment modalities.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at

Go slow with new exercise routine

Among the most popular New Year resolutions is weight loss. Beginning or resuming an exercise program after a long lay-off can result in significant injury that will impact a weight-loss program.

Exercise is an intricate part in regulating how much a human eats, drinks and sleeps. It dates back to hunting and gathering activities. In addition to these essential functions, exercise is key to cardiovascular, neurologic and mental health. Recent studies have also indicated that exercise has a protective effect against certain forms of cancer and dementia.

One pressing question remains: “How much exercise is needed to acquire the potential health benefits?” The best current data indicates that even light exercise can provide a big advantage.

Recent studies indicate that consistent daily activities including dog walking, housework, opting for stairs instead of an elevator or even performing home chores can result in improved overall longevity. The greatest benefit comes from 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous activity. This level of activity can reduce the risk of death by 50 percent.

One of the first steps toward a healthy activity program is to incorporate more standing and less sitting. The human body was not designed to withstand the stresses of prolonged sitting. Modifying a workstation to allow for periods of standing can produce a positive result.

An enthusiastic return to the gym should be tempered by the potential for injury. Light aerobic exercise in the form of walking on a treadmill, riding a stationary bike at low resistance or using an elliptical machine at no incline can be a good introduction.

Measuring steps with the use of a variety of technologic devices can provide a big boost to a walking program. A goal of 10,000 steps per day is ideal but any steps are a move in the right direction.

The operative message to beginning a safe exercise regimen is to get the approval of a physician and start slow.

Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at