Combat sports are among the fastest growing sports worldwide. Previously, this category of sports was restricted to boxing but has now expanded to karate, jiu-jitsu, kickboxing, judo and wrestling. These additional disciplines have come to be known as mixed martial arts (MMA).
The popularity of MMA should not come as a surprise. It has broad appeal to practitioners of these various combat forms as well as fans. Interestingly, the origins of combat sports in general date back to 400 B.C. when the participants were primarily slaves who were trying to win their freedom. Those contests often ended with the death of one opponent.
The ancient practice was eventually banned, not due to safety issues but because the contests had become so popular that spectators were not getting any work done.
Despite today's concern over the safety of these sports, there is a wide variation regarding regulation in the United States and internationally. Connecticut has become one of the strictest states to obtain a license to fight professionally. These regulations have evolved over years of experience at the state level and, more recently, at the Mohegan and Mashantucket Pequot Tribal nations.
The health regulations include blood screening for HIV, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C every six months. Annual physical exams in addition to those performed at the fight venue are required. An EKG must also be performed annually. This encourages combat sport athletes to establish care with a primary care physician.
Particular attention is paid to neurologic impairment. Participants are required to have either an MRI or CT of the brain at some time in their career. In addition, an annual examination by a board-certified neurologist is required to assess any previous brain damage.
"Establishing a core set of health requirements and sharing them with other jurisdictions has been a priority," reports Mr. Michael Mazzulli, Director of the Mohegan Tribe Department of Athletic Regulation. Mr. Mazzulli and his team now travel internationally to regulate MMA events.
Safety and careful preparation are imperative for combat sports participation at any level.
Dr. Alessi is a neurologist in Norwich and serves as an on-air contributor for ESPN. He is director of UConn NeuroSport and can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org