One of the most exciting fields of research in human physiology involves the effects of physical training on the immunologic response.
Immunology is the study of the ability to fight off attack from infection and certain forms of cancer. It consists of a response that utilizes white blood cells that isolate and destroy an offending agent.
Among the more common triggers of the immunologic response is the influenza virus. It also has a negative effect on the ability of athletes to attain their peak performance.
Pertinent findings regarding the effect of exercise on the immunologic response include:
• Studies performed on marathon runners reveal that intense exercise lasting longer than 60 minutes has an adverse effect on the ability to summon immune cells. This results in more frequent upper respiratory infections. Moderate regular exercise is associated with an improved response.
• There is a natural decline in the ability to mount a response to infection with age. Physically conditioned elderly subjects had a superior response to infection versus a sedentary group.
• Mental stress has also been shown to have an adverse effect on the immunologic response. Athletes who meditated for one hour a day for 8 weeks had an enhanced response to infection.
• Diet plays a big role in immunologic function. Athletes who were undernourished or involved in rapid weight loss were more susceptible to infection. This particularly applies to combat sport athletes and other athletes who must achieve a weight level.
• Adequate sleep is crucial to efficient immunological function.
After a very thorough review of the current literature in a recent lecture at the University of Connecticut, Professor Neil Walsh from Bangor University in the UK discussed the importance of hygiene.
Ironically, in addition to following solid training principles, it may be merely proper hand washing and covering the mouth and nose when sneezing that can lead to victory.